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George S. Benson

Name

[Benson, George S.]
  • Associate Professor

Biography

George S. Benson is an Associate Professor at the University of Texas at Arlington.  Dr. Benson earned his Ph.D. from the University of Southern California and completed a Post-Doctoral Fellowship at the Center for Effective Organizations in the Marshall School of Business.  Dr. Benson’s research focuses on employee involvement, development, careers and strategic management of human capital. He co-authored with Ed Lawler and Sue Mohrman Organizing for High Performance (Jossey-Bass, 2001).  Dr. Benson’s writing has appeared in Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Human Resource Management, Organizational Dynamics, Sloan Management Review, and Training & Development among others.  Dr. Benson’s work with companies has included HR metrics, job design, compensation, employee engagement and retention programs, employee attitude surveys, and training design and evaluation. He has worked with a wide range of organizations including Alcon Laboratories, ADESA Corporation, Aetna, FedEx, Frito-Lay, HKS Inc., KFC-Yum Brands, Pratt & Whitney, and PriceWaterhouse Coopers.  Dr. Benson previously worked as a researcher at the American Society for Training and Development in Alexandria, Virginia.  He also holds degrees from Washington and Lee University and Georgetown University.  

Professional Preparation

    • 2002 Ph.D. in Business AdministrationUniversity of Southern California
    • 1994 M.P.P. in Public PolicyGeorgetown University
    • 1992 BA in Politics and PhilosophyWashington and Lee University

Appointments

    • Sept 2010 to Present MSHRM Graduate Studies Chair
      University of Texas at Arlington
    • Jan 2008 to Present Associate Professor
      University of Texas at Arlington
    • Jan 2002 to Jan 2007 Assistant Professor
      University of Texas at Arlington
    • Jan 1997 to Jan 2001 Resarch Assistant
      University of Southern California
    • Jan 1994 to Jan 1997 Research Analyst
      American Society for Training and Development (ASTD)

Publications

      Book Chapter 2015
      • Benson, G. and Lawler, E. (2015). “Employee involvement: Research foundations,” in The Psychologically Healthy Workplace: Building a Win-Win Environment for Organizations and Employees. Grawitch, M. and Ballard, D. Eds. American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

        {Book Chapter }

      Journal Article 2013
      • Pattie, M., Benson, G., Casper, W., and McMahan, G. (2013), “Goal congruence:  Fitting international assignment into employee careers.” International Journal of Human Resource Management. 24:13, pp. 2554-2570.

        {Journal Article }
      2013
      • Benson, G., Kimmel, M., and Lawler, E. (2013). “Adoption of employee involvement practices: Organizational change issues and insights.”Research in Organizational Change and Development; Vol - 21; Edited by Shani et al. pp. 223-258.

        {Journal Article }

      Journal Article 2012
      • Lawler, E., Benson, G. and McDermott, M. (2012), “What makes performance appraisals effective.” Compensation and Benefits Review.
        {Journal Article }
      2012
      • Lawler, E., Benson, G., and McDermott, G. (2012). “Performance management and rewards systems.” World at Work Journal, World at Work: The Total Rewards Association.
        {Journal Article }

      Book Chapter 2011
      • Benson, G. Popular and Influential Management Books in Useful Research: Advancing Theory and Practice. S. Mohrman and Lawler, E. (Eds.). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
        {Book Chapter }
      2011
      • Jaussi, K & Benson, G, "Careers of the Creatives: Creating and Managing the Canvas,” in Handbook of Organizational Creativity, Mumford, M. (Ed.), Amsterdam: Elsevier.
        {Book Chapter }

      Conference Proceeding 2010
      • Khavul, S., Benson, G., & Datta, D. (2010). Investments in HRM in response to internationalization of entrepreneurial firms in emerging markets. In Zacharakis, A. et al. (Eds.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research..
        {Conference Proceeding }

      Journal Article 2010
      • Khavul, S.; Benson, G.; Datta, D. Does internationalization influence HRM investments? A study of entrepreneurial firms from emerging markets. Human Resource Management. 2010, 49 (4), 693-713.
        {Journal Article }
      2010
      • Levenson, A., Fenlon, M., and Benson, G. (2010). “Rethinking Retention Strategies: Work-life Versus Deferred Compensation in a Total Rewards Strategy.” Work at Work Journal, World at Work: The Total Rewards Association.
        {Journal Article }

      Book Chapter 2010
      • Benson, G.; Lawler, E. Raising Skill Demand: Generating Good Jobs. In Transforming the U.S. Workforce Development System: Lessons from Research and Practice. Finegold, D., and Wells, P. (Eds.). Champaign, IL: Labor and Employment Relations Association.;. p. 87-107
        {Book Chapter }

      Journal Article 2009
      • Benson, G.; Nordtvedt, L.; Datta, D. Managerial characteristics and willingness to send expatriates abroad. Human Resource Management, 48:6, pp. 849-869 2009.
        {Journal Article }
      2009
      • Payne, G.; Benson, G.; Finegold, D. Inside the black box: Corporate board attributes, effective governance and financial performance. Journal of Management Studies. 46:4, pp. 704-731. 2009.
        {Journal Article }
      2009
      • Benson, G.; Pattie, M. The comparative roles of home and host supervisors in the expatriate experience. Human Resource Management, 48:1, pp. 49-68 2009.

        {Journal Article }

      Journal Article 2008
      • Benson, G.; Pattie, M. Is expatriation good for my career? The impact of expatriate assignments on perceived and actual career outcomes. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 19:9, 1636-1653. 2008.
        {Journal Article }

      Journal Article 2007
      • Gibson, C.; Porath, C.; Benson, G.; Lawler, E. What results when firms implement practices: The differential relationship between specific practices, firm financial performance, customer service and quality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92:6, pp. 1467-1480. 2007.
        {Journal Article }
      2007
      • Finegold, D.; Hecht, D.; Benson, G. Corporate boards and company performance: Review of research in light of company reforms. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 15:5, pp. 865-878. 2007.
        {Journal Article }

      Conference Proceeding 2006
      • Benson, G., Levenson, A., & Boudreau, J. (2006). Informal developmental experiences and career success. In K.M Weaver, (Ed.) Proceedings of the Sixty-sixth Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management (CD).
        {Conference Proceeding }

      Journal Article 2006
      • Pattie, M.; Benson, G.; Baruch, Y. Tuition-reimbursement, graduate business education and career transitions. Resource Development Quarterly, 17:4, pp. 423-442 2006.
        {Journal Article }
      2006
      • Benson, G.; Young, S.; Lawler, E. High involvement work practices and analysts’ forecasts of corporate earnings. Human Resource Management, 45:4, pp. 519-537 2006.
        {Journal Article }
      2006
      • Benson, G. Employee development, commitment and intention to turnover: A test of ‘employability’ policies in action. Human Resource Management Journal, 16:2, pp. 173-192 2006.
        {Journal Article }

      Book Chapter 2006
      • Greenhaus, J.; Callanan, G.; Oaks, T. Tuition-reimbursement. In Encyclopedia of Career Management; 2006.
        {Book Chapter }

      Journal Article 2004
      • Benson, G.; Finegold, D.; Mohrman, S. You paid for the skills, now keep them: Tuition-reimbursement and voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 47:3, pp. 315-333. Finalist, Academy of Management HR Division Scholarly Achievement Award 2004.
        {Journal Article }

      Conference Proceeding 2003
      • Benson, G. (2003). Examining employability: The effects of employee development on commitment and intention to turnover. In D.H. Nagao (Ed.), Proceedings of the Sixty-third Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management (CD), ISSN 1543-8643.
        {Conference Proceeding }
      2003
      • Benson, G. (2003). Beyond skill development: The effects of training and development on the attitudes and retention of employees. In S. Lynham, (Ed.), Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development (CD), 4..
        {Conference Proceeding }

      Journal Article 2002
      • Finegold, D.; Benson, G.; Mohrman, S. Harvest what you grow: How You Can Get a Return on Your Investment in General Skills. Organizational Dynamics, 31:2, pp. 151-164 2002.
        {Journal Article }
      2002
      • Lawler, E.; Finegold, D.; Benson, G.; Conger, J. Corporate boards: Keys to effectiveness. Organizational Dynamics, 30:4, pp.310-324 2002.
        {Journal Article }
      2002
      • Lawler, E.; Finegold, D.; Benson, G.; Conger, J. Adding value in the boardroom. .” Sloan Management Review, 43: 2, pp. 92-93. 2002.
        {Journal Article }

      Book Chapter 2002
      • Benson, G.; Lawler, E. Employee Involvement: Utilization, impacts, and future prospects. In The New Workplace: People, Technology and Organization: A Handbook and Guide to the Human Impact of Modern Working Practices. Holman, D., Wall, T., Clegg, C., Sparrow, P., and Howard, A. (Eds.). West Sussex: John-Wiley & Sons; 2002.
        {Book Chapter }

      Book 2001
      • Lawler, E., Mohrman, S., & Benson, G. (2001). Organizing for High Performance: The CEO Report on Employee Involvement, TQM, Reengineering, and Knowledge Management in Fortune 1000 Companies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass..
        {Book }

      Journal Article 2000
      • CEO appraisal: Keys to Effectiveness. Global Focus, 12, 2, pp. 35-44. 2000.
        {Journal Article }

      Journal Article 1997
      • Measuring Informal Training Time: How Does it Compare?. Training & Development, American Society for Training and Development. 1997.
        {Journal Article }
      1997
      • Benson, G. New Look at EPSS [Electronic Performance Support Systems]. Training & Development, American Society for Training and Development. 1997.
        {Journal Article }

      Journal Article 1996
      • Bassi, L.; Benson, G.; Cheney, S. The Top Ten Trends: Position Yourself for the Future. Training & Development, American Society for Training and Development 1996.
        {Journal Article }
      1996
      • Benson, G. How Much Do Employers Spend on Training?. Training & Development, American Society for Training and Development. 1996.
        {Journal Article }
      1996
      • Benson, G.; Cheney, S. Best Practices in Training Delivery. Technical Skills Training, American Society for Training and Development. 1996.
        {Journal Article }
      1996
      • Day, L.; Benson, G. Training Success Stories: Best Practices of the ASTD Benchmarking Forum. Training & Development, American Society for Training and Development 1996.
        {Journal Article }

Presentations

    • November  2013

      Salazar, M., Benson, G. and Mohrman, S. (2013). “Reactions to informational justice across cultures: Relationships with control over job demands, supervisor support and intention to turnover”

    • August  2013

      Benson, G., Kimmel, M., and Lawler, E. (2013). “Why aren’t employee involvement practices more widely adopted? A review of EI research from an organization change perspective.”

    • August  2013

      Benson, G., McIntosh, C., Salazar, M. and Vaziri, H. (2013). “Defining career success: A cross cultural comparison.”

      Best International Paper, Careers Division

    • May  2013

      Levenson, A. and Benson, G. (2013). "PwC NextGen: A Global Generational Study'

    • May  2013

      Ledford, G., and Benson, G. (2013). "Crowd-sourced Performance Management"

    • August  2012

      Mohrman, S., Levenson, A., Benson, G., and Fenlon, M. (2012). “What makes research useful?”

    • August  2010

      Moses, A., Benson, G., and Levenson, A. (2010). “Exploring the Nature of Person-Job Fit in Jobs with Multiple-Distinct Roles.”

    • October  2009

      Benson, G. (2010). “Popular and Influential Management Books.”

    • October  1996

      Bassi, L., and Benson, G. (1997). “Data for HRD Research and the ASTD 1997 Human Performance Practices Survey.”

    • August  1996

      Benson, G. (1996). “Lessons Learned: The Process for Identifying Best Practices.”

    • August  1995

      Day, L., and Benson, G. (1995). “The Benchmarking of Training: Challenges and Lessons Learned.”

Support & Funding

This data is entered manually by the author of the profile and may duplicate data in the Sponsored Projects section.
    • Jan 2012 to Present International Comparisons of Millennial Careers sponsored by  - $60000
    • Jan 2011 to Present Study of Millennial Professionals sponsored by  - $30000
    • Jan 2006 to Present Expatriate Retention Study sponsored by  - $47000
    • Jan 2005 to Present Summer Research Award sponsored by  - $13000
    • Jan 2004 to Present Value of Human Capital sponsored by  - $22000
    • Jan 2001 to Present Post-Doctoral Fellowship sponsored by  - $40000
    • Jan 2000 to Present Employee Development Study sponsored by  - $30000
    • Jan 1996 to Present Human Performance Practices Report sponsored by  - $10000

Courses

      • MANA 5341-001 Staffing and Performance Management

        This course covers the acquisition, deployment, assessment and retention of an organization’s workforce.  Basic knowledge of human resources, organizational behavior, and business statistics is required.  Class material covers recruitment strategies, methods of selection, development and validation of selection and employee appraisal instruments, and implementation of performance management processes.  In addition to learning the principles of human resource management through readings and classroom lecture, this course will offer practical guidance on skills including interviewing and conducting performance evaluations.  The aim of the course is to provide a foundation making staffing and management decisions based on legal compliance, best practice, and scientific research.  The course material is not only useful for working in human resource departments.  At some point in your career, your ability to succeed is likely to depend on your ability to recruit and evaluate others.  Ultimately, the tools and skills developed in this course should help you become more effective contributors to organizations. 

        Fall - Regular Academic Session - 2018 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours1 Document
      • MANA 5341-1 STAFFING AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

        This course covers the acquisition, deployment, assessment and retention of an organization’s workforce.  Basic knowledge of human resources, organizational behavior, and business statistics is required.  Class material covers recruitment strategies, methods of selection, development and validation of selection and employee appraisal instruments, and implementation of performance management processes.  In addition to learning the principles of human resource management through readings and classroom lecture, this course will offer practical guidance on skills including interviewing and conducting performance evaluations.  The aim of the course is to provide a foundation making staffing and management decisions based on legal compliance, best practice, and scientific research.  The course material is not only useful for working in human resource departments.  At some point in your career, your ability to succeed is likely to depend on your ability to recruit and evaluate others.  Ultimately, the tools and skills developed in this course should help you become more effective contributors to organizations. 

        Fall - Regular Academic Session - 2015 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 5329-1 HR Metrics and Analytics

        This is a course in HR metrics and analytics.  The course introduces techniques to link HR measures and outcomes to business strategy and organizational performance through the applied research in organizations.  You will gain practical knowledge in how to collect data, choose appropriate statistical tests, interpret findings and write feedback reports.  The examples in class will focus on human resource decisions in organizations.  You will learn a number of quantitative decision making techniques for common human resource management issues such as recruiting, absenteeism, turnover, training evaluation, performance management and others.  While the focus is in human resource management issues, the skills learned in this course will allow all managers to make evidence based decisions through data collection, analysis and presentation.

        Fall - Regular Academic Session - 2015 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 3320-1 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

        This course is an introduction to human resources in the modern corporation.  The material describes the practices of the human resource function along with the theory and research that support them.  The course draws from many disciplines and includes the dynamics of various individual, group, and organizational processes.  In addition to learning the theory and topics of human resource management through readings and classroom lecture, this course will require you to participate and model some of the behaviors we will discuss in class including interviewing, salary negotiations and conducting performance evaluations. The course material is not only useful for working in human resource departments.  At some point in your career, your ability to succeed is likely to depend on your ability to recruit, develop and evaluate others.  Ultimately, the tools and skills developed in this course should equip you to obtain a job, plan a career, and become more effective contributors to business.

      • MANA 4328-1 HUMAN RESOURCE STAFFING AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

        This is an advanced course in human resource management that covers the acquisition, deployment, assessment and retention of an organization’s workforce.  Basic knowledge of human resources, organizational behavior, and business statistics is required.  Class material covers recruitment strategies, methods of selection, development and validation of selection and employee appraisal instruments, and implementation of performance management processes. In addition to learning the theory and topics of human resource management through readings and classroom lecture, this course will require you to participate and model some of the situations and behaviors we will discuss in class including interviewing and conducting performance evaluations. The approach of the course will be practical guidance for making staffing and management decisions in organizations based on explanatory theory and scientific research.  The course material is not only useful for working in human resource departments.  At some point in your career, your ability to succeed is likely to depend on your ability to recruit and evaluate others.  Ultimately, the tools and skills developed in this course should help you become more effective contributors to organizations.  

        Spring - Regular Academic Session - 2015 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 5344-1 Evidence-Based Management

        Evidence-based management is the process of translating principles and findings based on best evidence into organizational practice.  This class covers the organizational and interpersonal sides of data and information.  You will develop the skills and knowledge necessary to use data and analytics to inform management and make better decisions.  Through case examples and classroom discussion you will learn skills in research design, internal consulting, change management, data interpretation and presentation.  While the focus is on the practical application of business intelligence, the skills learned in this course will allow all managers to make evidence based decisions through data collection, analysis and presentation

        Spring - Regular Academic Session - 2015 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 5329-1 HR Metrics and Analytics

        This is a course in HR metrics and analytics.  The course introduces techniques to link HR measures and outcomes to business strategy and organizational performance through the applied research.  You will gain practical knowledge in how to collect data, choose appropriate statistical tests, interpret findings and write feedback reports.  The examples in class will focus on human resource decisions in organizations.  You will learn a number of quantitative decision making techniques for common human resource management issues such as recruiting, absenteeism, turnover, training evaluation, performance management and others.  While the focus is in human resource management issues, the skills learned in this course will allow all managers to make evidence based decisions through data collection, analysis and presentation.

        Fall - Regular Academic Session - 2014 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 5341-1 Staffing and Performance Management

        This course covers the acquisition, deployment, assessment and retention of an organization’s workforce.  Basic knowledge of human resources, organizational behavior, and business statistics is required.  Class material covers recruitment strategies, methods of selection, development and validation of selection and employee appraisal instruments, and implementation of performance management processes. In addition to learning the principles of human resource management through readings and classroom lecture, this course will offer practical guidance on skills including interviewing and conducting performance evaluations.  The aim of the course is to provide a foundation making staffing and management decisions based on legal compliance, best practice, and scientific research. The course material is not only useful for working in human resource departments.  At some point in your career, your ability to succeed is likely to depend on your ability to recruit and evaluate others.  Ultimately, the tools and skills developed in this course should help you become more effective contributors to organizations.

        Fall - Regular Academic Session - 2014 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 5334-1 ORGANIZATION CONSULTING AND RESEARCH

        This is a project-based course designed to provide graduate students field experience in applied organizational research and consulting. Your primary course assignment will be to work with a real organization to solve a real management problem. You will be working for them, often at their location, and dedicating a significant amount of time outside of class. You are expected to deliver quality results and take a professional approach to your work. The first half of the semester focuses on the organizational research and consulting process. Through readings and seminar discussion will be introduced to applied organizational research. This will include developing hypotheses, research design, and data collection methods along with an introduction to the process of organizational consulting. The second half of the semester focuses on applied project work. You will gain practical knowledge in developing client relationships, contracting, research design, data collection, analysis and feedback. A complete written report and presentation will be delivered to the client at the end of the project.

        Spring - Regular Academic Session - 2014 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 5338-1 CAREERS AND MANAGING IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

        This course focuses on practical and theoretical perspectives on careers and managing in a changing work environment. Includes multiple self-assessments, career plan development, feedback interviews, readings and exercises designed to lead to a better understanding of managing self and others. We will discuss the trends shaping the future of work and careers, assess your readiness to thrive in the career of your choice, and prepare you to lead change in organizations.

        Spring - Regular Academic Session - 2014 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 5329-1 Method of Organizational Research

        This is a course in HR metrics and analytics.  The course introduces the basic principles of applied research in organizations including research design, data collection and hypothesis testing in human resource accplications. You will gain practical knowledge in how to collect data, choose appropriate statistical tests, interpret findings and write feedback reports.  The examples in class will focus on human resource decisions in organizations.  You will learn a number of quantitative decision making techniques for common human resource management issues such as recruiting, absenteeism, turnover, training evaluation, performance management and others.  While the focus is in human resource management issues, the skills learned in this course will allow all managers to make evidence based decisions through data collection, analysis and presentation.

        Fall - Regular Academic Session - 2013 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 5341-1 STAFFING AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

        This course covers the acquisition, deployment, assessment and retention of an organization’s workforce.Basic knowledge of human resources, organizational behavior, and business statistics is required.Class material covers recruitment strategies, methods of selection, development and validation of selection and employee appraisal instruments, and implementation of performance management processes.In addition to learning the principles of human resource management through readings and classroom lecture, this course will offer practical guidance on skills including interviewing and conducting performance evaluations.The aim of the course is to provide a foundation making staffing and management decisions based on legal compliance, best practice, and scientific research.The course material is not only useful for working in human resource departments.At some point in your career, your ability to succeed is likely to depend on your ability to recruit and evaluate others.Ultimately, the tools and skills developed in this course should help you become more effective contributors to organizations.

        Fall - Regular Academic Session - 2013 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 5338-1 CAREERS AND MANAGING IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

        This course focuses on practical and theoretical perspectives on careers and managing in a changing work environment. Includes multiple self-assessments, career plan development, informational interviews, readings and exercises designed to lead to a better understanding of managing self and others. We will discuss the trends shaping the future of work and careers, assess your readiness to thrive in the career of your choice, and prepare you to lead change in organizations.

        Spring - Regular Academic Session - 2013 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 5334-1 ORGANIZATION CONSULTING & RESEARCH
        This is a project-based course designed to provide graduate students field experience in applied organizational research and consulting. Your primary course assignment will be to work with a real organization to solve a real management problem. You will be working for them, often at their location, and dedicating a significant amount of time outside of class. You are expected to deliver quality results and take a professional approach to your work. The first half of the semester focuses on the organizational research and consulting process. Through readings and seminar discussion will be introduced to applied organizational research. This will include developing hypotheses, research design, and data collection methods along with an introduction to the process of organizational consulting. The second half of the semester focuses on applied project work. You will gain practical knowledge in developing client relationships, contracting, research design, data collection, analysis and feedback. A complete written report and presentation will be delivered to the client at the end of the project.
        Spring - Regular Academic Session - 2013 Download Syllabus
      • MANA 5329-1 Methods of Organizational Research

        The aim of this course is to provide a theoretical and practical overview of organization research methods.The course introduces the basic principles of applied research in organizations including research design, data collection and hypothesis testing. You will gain practical knowledge in how to collect data, choose appropriate statistical tests, interpret findings and write feedback reports.The examples in class will focus on human resource decisions in organizations.You will learn a number of quantitative decision making techniques for common human resource management issues such as recruiting, absenteeism, turnover, training evaluation, performance management and others.While the focus is in human resource management issues, the skills learned in this course will allow all managers to make evidence based decisions through data collection, analysis and presentation.

        Fall - Regular Academic Session - 2012 Download Syllabus Contact info & Office Hours
      • MANA 5341-1 STAFFING AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

        This course covers the acquisition, deployment, assessment and retention of an organization’s workforce.Basic knowledge of human resources, organizational behavior, and business statistics is required.Class material covers recruitment strategies, methods of selection, development and validation of selection and employee appraisal instruments, and implementation of performance management processes.In addition to learning the principles of human resource management through readings and classroom lecture, this course will offer practical guidance on skills including interviewing and conducting performance evaluations.The aim of the course is to provide a foundation making staffing and management decisions based on legal compliance, best practice, and scientific research.The course material is not only useful for working in human resource departments.At some point in your career, your ability to succeed is likely to depend on your ability to recruit and evaluate others.Ultimately, the tools and skills developed in this course should help you become more effective contributors to organizations.

        Fall - Regular Academic Session - 2012 Download Syllabus

Other Teaching Activities

  • 2014
    • UTA EMBA Program
      • Aug 2014 EMBA 5340 Strategic Human Resource Management